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Dolly Payne Todd Madison - Historia

Dolly Payne Todd Madison - Historia


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Dolly Madison se convirtió en una anfitriona de fama mundial mientras era Primera Dama de 1809 a 1817. Con una facilidad inusual para los nombres y las caras, Dolly Madison encantó a todos. Ella estableció los estándares que otras mujeres estadounidenses intentaron seguir, particularmente en el ámbito de la moda. Costosos vestidos parisinos, elaborados turbantes de plumas, rapé y colorete se convirtieron en sus marcas registradas.

Dolly Payne Todd era una viuda de veintiséis años con dos hijos cuando conoció a Madison, que tenía cuarenta y tres. (Su primer marido había muerto de fiebre amarilla después de solo tres años de matrimonio). Aunque Dolly y James parecían una pareja poco probable, pronto se convirtió en su segundo marido.

Las formidables habilidades sociales de Dolly Madison fueron un gran activo durante la Guerra de 1812 cuando dio innumerables fiestas para mantener la moral. Pero se le atribuye un logro aún más significativo. Inmediatamente antes de que los invasores británicos incendiaran la Casa Blanca, Dolly guardó el borrador original de la Constitución y la Declaración de Independencia, junto con el retrato de Stuart de George Washington.


Dolly Payne Todd Madison - Historia

Biografía: Durante medio siglo fue la mujer más importante de los círculos sociales de América. Hasta el día de hoy sigue siendo una de las damas más conocidas y queridas de la Casa Blanca, aunque a menudo se la conoce, erróneamente, como Dorothy o Dorothea.

Ella siempre se llamó a sí misma Dolley, y con ese nombre la Reunión Mensual de New Garden de la Sociedad de Amigos, en Piedmont, Carolina del Norte, registró su nacimiento de John y Mary Coles Payne, colonos de Virginia. En 1769 John Payne llevó a su familia de regreso a su colonia natal, y en 1783 los trasladó a Filadelfia, ciudad de los cuáqueros. Dolley creció bajo la estricta disciplina de la Sociedad, pero nada acallaba su alegre personalidad y su cálido corazón.

John Todd, Jr., un abogado, intercambió votos matrimoniales con Dolley en 1790. Solo tres años después murió en una epidemia de fiebre amarilla, dejando a su esposa con un hijo pequeño.

Para entonces, Filadelfia se había convertido en la ciudad capital. Con su encanto y sus ojos azules risueños, piel clara y rizos negros, la joven viuda atrajo una atención distinguida. Al poco tiempo, Dolley le informó a su mejor amiga que "la gran pequeña Madison ha pedido verme esta noche".

Aunque el Representante James Madison de Virginia era 17 años mayor que ella y tenía antecedentes episcopales, se casaron en septiembre de 1794. El matrimonio, aunque sin hijos, fue notablemente feliz "nuestros corazones se entienden", le aseguró. Incluso podría ser paciente con el hijo de Dolley, Payne, quien manejó mal sus propios asuntos y, finalmente, administró mal la propiedad de Madison.

Descartando el sombrío vestido cuáquero después de su segundo matrimonio, Dolley eligió la más fina de las modas. Margaret Bayard Smith, cronista de la vida social temprana de Washington, escribió: "Parecía una reina. Sería absolutamente imposible para que alguien se comporte con más perfecta corrección que ella ".

Bendecida con el deseo de agradar y la voluntad de agradar, Dolley convirtió su hogar en el centro de la sociedad cuando Madison comenzó, en 1801, sus ocho años como secretaria de Estado de Jefferson. Asistió en la Casa Blanca cuando el presidente le pidió ayuda para recibir a las damas y presidió el primer baile inaugural en Washington cuando su esposo se convirtió en director ejecutivo en 1809.

Las gracias sociales de Dolley la hicieron famosa. Su perspicacia política, apreciada por su marido, es menos conocida, aunque su tacto amable suavizó muchas disputas. Estadistas hostiles, enviados difíciles de España o Túnez, jefes guerreros del oeste, jóvenes nerviosos: ella siempre daba la bienvenida a todos. Obligada a huir de la Casa Blanca por un ejército británico durante la Guerra de 1812, regresó y encontró la mansión en ruinas. Sin dejarse intimidar por los alojamientos temporales, entretuvo con tanta habilidad como siempre.

En su plantación de Montpelier en Virginia, los Madison vivieron en un agradable retiro hasta que él murió en 1836. Ella regresó a la capital en el otoño de 1837 y sus amigos encontraron maneras discretas de complementar sus ingresos reducidos. Permaneció en Washington hasta su muerte en 1849, honrada y amada por todos. La encantadora personalidad de esta mujer inusual es una parte preciada de la historia de su país.


Contenido

Dolley Payne, la primera niña de su familia, nació el 20 de mayo de 1768 en el asentamiento cuáquero de "New Garden" en el condado de Guilford (actual Greensboro), Carolina del Norte, de Mary Coles y John Payne, Jr., ambos Virginianos que se habían mudado a Carolina del Norte en 1765. [4] Mary Coles, una cuáquera, se había casado con John Payne, un no cuáquero, en 1761. Tres años más tarde, presentó una solicitud y fue admitida en la reunión mensual cuáquera en el condado de Hanover. Virginia, donde vivían los padres de Coles. Se convirtió en un ferviente seguidor y criaron a sus hijos en la fe cuáquera.

En 1769, los Payne habían regresado a Virginia [4] y la joven Dolley creció en la plantación de sus padres en la zona rural del este de Virginia y se unió profundamente a la familia de su madre. Finalmente, tuvo tres hermanas (Lucy, Anna y Mary) y cuatro hermanos (Walter, William Temple, Isaac y John). [ cita necesaria ]

En 1783, después de la Guerra de Independencia de los Estados Unidos, John Payne emancipó a sus esclavos, [4] al igual que numerosos propietarios de esclavos en el Alto Sur. [5] Algunos, como Payne, eran cuáqueros, que durante mucho tiempo habían fomentado la manumisión, otros se inspiraron en ideales revolucionarios. De 1782 a 1810, la proporción de negros libres sobre la población negra total en Virginia aumentó de menos del uno por ciento al 7,2 por ciento, y más de 30.000 negros estaban libres. [5]

Cuando Dolley tenía 15 años, Payne se mudó con su familia a Filadelfia, donde comenzó a trabajar como comerciante de almidón, pero el negocio había fracasado en 1791. Esto fue visto como una "debilidad" en sus reuniones cuáqueras, por lo que fue expulsado. [6] Murió en octubre de 1792 y Mary Payne inicialmente llegó a fin de mes abriendo una pensión, pero al año siguiente se llevó a sus dos hijos menores, Mary y John, y se mudó al oeste de Virginia para vivir con su hija Lucy y su nuevo esposo. , George Steptoe Washington, sobrino de George Washington. [ cita necesaria ]

Matrimonio y familia Editar

En enero de 1790, Dolley Payne se casó con John Todd, un abogado cuáquero en Filadelfia. Rápidamente tuvieron dos hijos, John Payne (llamado Payne) y William Temple (nacido el 4 de julio de 1793 [7]). Después de que Mary Payne dejó Filadelfia en 1793, la hermana de Dolley, Anna Payne, se mudó con ellos para ayudar con los niños.

En agosto de 1793, estalló una epidemia de fiebre amarilla en Filadelfia, matando a 5.019 personas en cuatro meses. [8] Dolley se vio particularmente afectada, perdiendo a su esposo, su hijo William, su suegra y su suegro. [6]

Mientras sufría la pérdida de gran parte de su familia, también tuvo que cuidar a su hijo sobreviviente sin apoyo financiero. Mientras su esposo le había dejado el dinero en su testamento, el albacea, su cuñado, retuvo los fondos y ella tuvo que demandarlo por lo que se le debía. [6]

A pesar de la posición debilitada de Dolley después de la muerte de la mayoría de sus parientes masculinos, todavía se la consideraba una mujer hermosa y vivía en Filadelfia, la capital temporal de los Estados Unidos. Mientras su madre se fue a vivir con otra hija casada en 1801, Dolley llamó la atención de James Madison, quien luego representó a Virginia en la Cámara de Representantes de Estados Unidos. Si bien volverse a casar habría sido crucial para ella, ya que mantener a ella y a su hijo con los ingresos que una mujer podría ganar habría sido un desafío, se informa que ella parecía preocuparse genuinamente por James. [6]

Algunas fuentes afirman que Aaron Burr, un viejo amigo de Madison desde sus días de estudiante en el College of New Jersey (ahora llamado Princeton University), se quedó en una pensión donde también residía Dolley, y fue idea de Aaron presentarlos a los dos. En mayo de 1794, Burr hizo la presentación formal entre la joven viuda y Madison, quien a los 43 años era una soltera 17 años mayor que ella. Siguió un rápido noviazgo y, en agosto, Dolley aceptó su propuesta de matrimonio. Como él no era cuáquero, fue expulsada de la Sociedad de Amigos por casarse fuera de su fe, después de lo cual Dolley comenzó a asistir a los servicios episcopales. A pesar de su educación cuáquera, no hay evidencia de que desaprobara a James como dueño de esclavos. [6] Se casaron el 15 de septiembre de 1794 y vivieron en Filadelfia durante los siguientes tres años. [9]

En 1797, después de ocho años en la Cámara de Representantes, James Madison se retiró de la política. Regresó con su familia a Montpelier, la plantación de la familia Madison en el condado de Orange, Virginia. Allí ampliaron la casa y se instalaron. Cuando Thomas Jefferson fue elegido tercer presidente de los Estados Unidos en 1800, le pidió a Madison que fuera su secretario de Estado. Madison aceptó y trasladó a Dolley, su hijo Payne, su hermana Anna y sus esclavas domésticas a Washington en F Street. Tomaron una casa grande, ya que Dolley creía que el entretenimiento sería importante en la nueva capital. [10]

Dolley trabajó con el arquitecto Benjamin Henry Latrobe para amueblar la Casa Blanca, la primera residencia oficial construida para el presidente de los Estados Unidos. A veces se desempeñaba como anfitriona del viudo Jefferson para funciones ceremoniales oficiales. [11] Dolley se convertiría en una parte crucial del círculo social de Washington, entablando amistad con las esposas de numerosos diplomáticos como Sarah Martínez de Yrujo, esposa del embajador de España, y Marie-Angelique Turreau, esposa del embajador francés. Su encanto precipitó una crisis diplomática, llamada Merry Affair, después de que Jefferson escoltara a Dolley al comedor en lugar de a la esposa de Anthony Merry, diplomático inglés en los Estados Unidos, en un gran paso en falso.

En el acercamiento a las elecciones presidenciales de 1808, con Thomas Jefferson listo para retirarse, el caucus demócrata-republicano nominó a James Madison para sucederlo. Fue elegido presidente, sirviendo dos mandatos desde 1809 hasta 1817, y Dolley se convirtió en la anfitriona oficial de la Casa Blanca. [12] Dolley ayudó a definir las funciones oficiales, decoró la Mansión Ejecutiva y dio la bienvenida a los visitantes en su salón. Era conocida por sus atenciones sociales y su hospitalidad, y contribuyó a la popularidad de su esposo como presidente. Fue la única Primera Dama a la que se le otorgó un asiento honorífico en el piso del Congreso y la primera estadounidense en responder a un mensaje telegráfico. [13] En 1812, James fue reelegido. Este fue el año en que comenzó la Guerra de 1812 con Gran Bretaña. Después de enviar al diplomático y poeta Joel Barlow a Europa para discutir el Decreto de Berlín y las controvertidas Órdenes en Consejo, James Madison entregaría su solicitud de guerra al Congreso.

Quema de Washington, 1814 Editar

Después de que Estados Unidos declarara la guerra en 1812 e intentara invadir Canadá en 1813, una fuerza británica atacó Washington en 1814. Mientras se acercaba y el personal de la Casa Blanca se preparaba apresuradamente para huir, Dolley ordenó la pintura de Stuart, una copia del retrato de Lansdowne, para ser salva, como le escribió en una carta a su hermana a las 3 de la tarde del 23 de agosto:

Nuestro amable amigo el Sr. Carroll ha venido a apresurar mi partida, y de muy mal humor conmigo, porque insisto en esperar hasta que el cuadro grande del general Washington esté asegurado y sea necesario desenroscarlo de la pared. El proceso resultó demasiado tedioso para estos peligrosos momentos. He ordenado que se rompa el marco y se saque el lienzo. Está hecho, y el precioso retrato se coloca en manos de dos caballeros de Nueva York para su custodia. Al entregar el lienzo a los caballeros en cuestión, los Sres. Barker y Depeyster, el Sr. Sioussat les advirtió que no lo enrollaran, diciendo que destruiría el retrato. Lo movieron a esto porque el Sr. Barker comenzó a enrollarlo para mayor comodidad de transporte. [14] [15]

Los relatos populares durante y después de los años de la guerra tendieron a retratar a Dolley como quien quitó la pintura, y se convirtió en una heroína nacional. Los historiadores de principios del siglo XX señalaron que Jean Pierre Sioussat había dirigido a los sirvientes, muchos de los cuales eran esclavos, en la crisis, y que los esclavos domésticos eran los que realmente conservaban la pintura. [16] [17]

Dolley Madison se alejó apresuradamente en su carruaje, junto con otras familias que huían de la ciudad. Fueron a Georgetown y al día siguiente cruzaron el Potomac hacia Virginia. [18] Cuando el peligro disminuyó después de que los británicos abandonaron Washington unos días después, regresó a la capital para encontrarse con su esposo. Sin embargo, el pillaje desenfrenado y la destrucción sistemática habían devastado gran parte de la nueva ciudad. Cuando el Congreso comenzó las discusiones sobre la construcción de una nueva capital, Dolley y James se mudaron a The Octagon House.

El 6 de abril de 1817, un mes después de su retiro de la presidencia, Dolley y James Madison regresaron a la plantación de Montpelier en el condado de Orange, Virginia. [19]

En 1830, el hijo de Dolley, Payne Todd, que nunca había encontrado una carrera, fue a la prisión de deudores en Filadelfia y los Madison vendieron tierras en Kentucky e hipotecaron la mitad de la plantación de Montpelier para pagar sus deudas. [20]

James murió en Montpelier el 28 de junio de 1836. Dolley permaneció en Montpelier durante un año. Su sobrina Anna Payne se mudó con ella y Todd vino para una estadía prolongada. Durante este tiempo, Dolley organizó y copió los papeles de su esposo. El Congreso autorizó $ 55,000 como pago por editar y publicar siete volúmenes de los artículos de Madison, incluidas sus notas únicas sobre la convención de 1787. [19]

En el otoño de 1837, Dolley regresó a Washington y encargó a Todd el cuidado de la plantación. Ella y su hermana Anna se mudaron a una casa, comprada por Anna y su esposo Richard Cutts, en Lafayette Square. Madison se llevó a Paul Jennings como mayordomo y se vio obligado a dejar a su familia en Virginia. [21]

Mientras Dolley Madison vivía en Washington, Payne Todd no pudo administrar la plantación debido al alcoholismo y enfermedades relacionadas. Trató de recaudar dinero vendiendo el resto de los periódicos del presidente. Ella accedió a vender Jennings a Daniel Webster, quien le permitió obtener su libertad pagándole a través del trabajo.

Incapaz de encontrar un comprador para los papeles, vendió Montpelier, los esclavos restantes y los muebles para pagar las deudas pendientes.

Paul Jennings, el ex esclavo de los Madison, más tarde recordó en sus memorias,

En los últimos días de su vida, antes de que el Congreso comprara los papeles de su esposo, ella se encontraba en un estado de pobreza absoluta y creo que a veces sufría por las necesidades de la vida. Mientras era sirviente del señor Webster, a menudo me enviaba con una cesta llena de provisiones y me decía que siempre que veía algo en la casa pensaba que ella necesitaba que se lo llevara. A menudo hacía esto, y ocasionalmente le daba pequeñas sumas de mi propio bolsillo, aunque años antes le había comprado mi libertad. [22]

En 1848, el Congreso acordó comprar el resto de los papeles de James Madison por la suma de $ 22,000 o $ 25,000. [ cita necesaria ]

En 1842, Dolley Madison se unió a la Iglesia Episcopal de St. John, Lafayette Square en Washington, D.C. A esta iglesia asistieron otros miembros de las familias Madison y Payne.

El 28 de febrero de 1844, Madison estaba con el presidente John Tyler mientras estaba a bordo del USS Princeton cuando un cañón "Pacificador" explotó en el proceso de ser disparado. Mientras los secretarios de Estado y Marina Abel P. Upshur y Thomas Walker Gilmer, el futuro suegro de Tyler, David Gardiner, y otros tres fueron asesinados, el presidente Tyler y Dolley Madison escaparon ilesos.

Murió en su casa en Washington en 1849, a la edad de 81 años. Primero fue enterrada en el Cementerio del Congreso, Washington, DC, pero luego fue enterrada nuevamente en Montpelier junto a su esposo. [11]

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el barco Liberty SS Dolly Madison fue construido en la ciudad de Panamá, Florida, y nombrado en su honor. [23]

Madison fue miembro de la clase inaugural de Virginia Women in History en 2000. [24]

En el pasado, los biógrafos y otros declararon que su nombre de pila era Dorothea, en honor a su tía, o Dorothy, y que Dolley era un apodo. Pero su nacimiento fue registrado en la Reunión de Amigos de New Garden como Dolley, y su testamento de 1841 dice "Yo, Dolly P. Madison". [25] Basado en evidencia manuscrita y la erudición de biógrafos recientes, Dollie, deletreada "ie", parece haber sido su nombre de pila al nacer. [26] [27] Por otro lado, la prensa escrita, especialmente los periódicos, tendía a deletrearlo "Dolly": por ejemplo, el Gaceta de Hallowell (Maine), 8 de febrero de 1815, pág. 4, se refiere a cómo el Congreso había permitido a "Madame Dolly Madison" una asignación de $ 14,000 para comprar muebles nuevos y New Bedford (MA) del 3 de marzo de 1837, p. 2 se refirió a una serie de documentos importantes de su difunto esposo, y dijo que el Senado pagaría a la "Sra. Dolly Madison" por estos manuscritos históricos. Varias revistas de esa época también usaban la ortografía "Dolly", como El Knickerbocker, Febrero de 1837, pág. 165 [28] al igual que muchas revistas populares de las décadas de 1860 a 1890. Ella fue referida como "Mistress Dolly" en un ensayo de Revista de Munsey en 1896. [29] Su nieta Lucia Beverly Cutts, en su Memorias y cartas de Dolly Madison: esposa de James Madison, presidente de los Estados Unidos (1896) utiliza "Dolly" de forma coherente en todas partes. [30]


Dolley Payne Todd Madison

Dolley Payne Todd Madison, una de las Primeras Damas más conocidas y queridas, fue la esposa de James Madison, el cuarto presidente de los Estados Unidos (1809-1817). Su estilo icónico y su presencia social impulsaron la popularidad de su esposo como presidente.

Durante medio siglo fue la mujer más importante de los círculos sociales de América. Hasta el día de hoy sigue siendo una de las damas más conocidas y queridas de la Casa Blanca, aunque a menudo se la conoce, erróneamente, como Dorothy o Dorothea.

Ella siempre se llamó a sí misma Dolley, y con ese nombre la Reunión Mensual de New Garden de la Sociedad de Amigos, en Piedmont, Carolina del Norte, registró su nacimiento de John y Mary Coles Payne, colonos de Virginia. En 1769 John Payne llevó a su familia de regreso a su colonia natal, y en 1783 los trasladó a Filadelfia, ciudad de los cuáqueros. Dolley creció bajo la estricta disciplina de la Sociedad, pero nada acallaba su alegre personalidad y su cálido corazón.

John Todd, Jr., un abogado, intercambió votos matrimoniales con Dolley en 1790. Solo tres años después murió en una epidemia de fiebre amarilla, dejando a su esposa con un hijo pequeño.

Para entonces, Filadelfia se había convertido en la ciudad capital. Con su encanto y sus ojos azules risueños, piel clara y rizos negros, la joven viuda atrajo una atención distinguida. Al poco tiempo, Dolley le informó a su mejor amiga que "la gran pequeña Madison ha pedido ... verme esta noche".

Aunque el Representante James Madison de Virginia era 17 años mayor que ella y tenía antecedentes episcopales, se casaron en septiembre de 1794. El matrimonio, aunque sin hijos, fue notablemente feliz de que “nuestros corazones se entienden”, le aseguró. Incluso podría ser paciente con el hijo de Dolley, Payne, quien manejó mal sus propios asuntos y, finalmente, administró mal la propiedad de Madison.

Descartando el sombrío vestido cuáquero después de su segundo matrimonio, Dolley eligió la más fina de las modas. Margaret Bayard Smith, cronista de la vida social de los primeros años de Washington, escribió: "Parecía una reina ... Sería absolutamente imposible que alguien se comportara con una propiedad más perfecta que ella".

Bendecida con el deseo de agradar y la voluntad de agradar, Dolley convirtió su hogar en el centro de la sociedad cuando Madison comenzó, en 1801, sus ocho años como Secretaria de Estado de Jefferson. Asistió en la Casa Blanca cuando el presidente le pidió ayuda para recibir a las damas y presidió el primer baile inaugural en Washington cuando su esposo se convirtió en director ejecutivo en 1809.

Las gracias sociales de Dolley la hicieron famosa. Su perspicacia política, apreciada por su marido, es menos conocida, aunque su tacto amable suavizó muchas disputas. Estadistas hostiles, enviados difíciles de España o Túnez, jefes guerreros del oeste, jóvenes nerviosos, ella siempre daba la bienvenida a todos. Obligada a huir de la Casa Blanca por un ejército británico durante la Guerra de 1812, regresó y encontró la mansión en ruinas. Sin dejarse intimidar por los alojamientos temporales, entretuvo con tanta habilidad como siempre.

En su plantación de Montpelier en Virginia, los Madison vivieron en un agradable retiro hasta que él murió en 1836. Ella regresó a la capital en el otoño de 1837 y sus amigos encontraron maneras discretas de complementar sus ingresos reducidos. Permaneció en Washington hasta su muerte en 1849, honrada y amada por todos. La encantadora personalidad de esta mujer inusual es una parte preciada de la historia de su país.


Vestido de terciopelo rojo de la leyenda de Dolley Madison

Mientras el general de división Robert Ross y sus 4.000 soldados británicos se acercaban a Washington, con órdenes de incendiar los edificios públicos de la ciudad, Dolley Madison se mantuvo firme en la Casa Blanca. Una de las primeras damas más poderosas de la historia, mantuvo la compostura suficiente para reunir algunos de los tesoros de la nación antes de escapar.

Ese fatídico día, el 24 de agosto de 1814, Dolley hizo los arreglos para que los sirvientes rompieran el marco del retrato de Gilbert Stuart de George Washington colgado en el comedor del estado y lo llevaran a un lugar seguro. También guardó algo de plata, loza y, sobre todo, cortinas de terciopelo rojo del Salón Oval.

En la National Portrait Gallery, un vestido de terciopelo rojo ardiente atrae la atención de los visitantes a & # 82201812: A Nation Emerges, & # 8221 una nueva exposición que conmemora el bicentenario de la Guerra de 1812. ¿Podría el vestido de estilo imperio, que Dolley Madison propiedad hasta su muerte en 1849, ¿se han hecho con las cortinas que rescató de la Casa Blanca? Algunos historiadores y curadores lo sospechan.

Para reconstruir la historia del vestido se requiere, en primer lugar, una consideración de la historia de las cortinas. En 1809, el Congreso asignó 14.000 dólares al arquitecto Benjamin Latrobe para redecorar la Casa Blanca. Para el Salón Oval (ahora llamado Salón Azul), Latrobe imaginó grandes tratamientos para ventanas hechos de damasco de seda. Pero le escribió a Dolley, el 22 de marzo de 1809, con una noticia decepcionante: & # 8220 No hay damasco de seda ni en Nueva York ni en Filadelfia, y por lo tanto me veo obligado a darle cortinas de terciopelo carmesí & # 8221.

Cuando Latrobe recibió el terciopelo, lo encontró chillón. & # 8220 ¡Las cortinas! ¡Oh, las terribles cortinas de terciopelo! Su efecto me arruinará por completo, tan brillantes serán ”, escribió en una carta de abril a la Primera Dama. A Dolley, por otro lado, conocida por tener gustos atrevidos, le gustó la tela.

"Ella se sale con la suya, por supuesto", dice Sid Hart, historiador principal de la Galería Nacional de Retratos y curador de la exposición.

Una carta que Dolley le escribió a la esposa de Latrobe, Mary, poco después del incendio de la Casa Blanca, a menudo se cita como evidencia de que ella, de hecho, agarró las cortinas. & # 8220 Dos horas antes de que el enemigo entrara en la ciudad & # 8230 Envié las cortinas plateadas (casi todas) y de terciopelo y la foto del General Washington & # 8217. & # 8221 Ella se encargó de que sólo se salvaran unos pocos objetos preciados, así que ¿por qué incluir el cortinas?

En la National Portrait Gallery, un vestido de terciopelo rojo ardiente atrae la atención de los visitantes a "1812: A Nation Emerges", una nueva exposición que conmemora el bicentenario de la Guerra de 1812. (Museo Histórico de Greensboro) Mientras el general de división Robert Ross y sus 4.000 soldados británicos se acercaban a Washington, con órdenes de incendiar los edificios públicos de la ciudad, Dolley Madison se mantuvo firme en la Casa Blanca. (Dolley Dandridge Payne Todd Madison por Gilbert Stuart / Asociación Histórica de la Casa Blanca (Colección de la Casa Blanca)) Algunos historiadores y curadores sospechan que el vestido de estilo imperio, que Dolley Madison poseyó hasta su muerte en 1849, puede haber sido hecho con las cortinas que rescató de la Casa Blanca en 1814 (Mark Gulezian. & # 169 National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institución)

& # 8220 Ella tenía un afecto especial por las cortinas, & # 8221 dice Hart. & # 8220 Tal vez de alguna manera representaron en su mente sus esfuerzos por hacer de la Casa Blanca un centro de actividad social. & # 8221

Al estallar la Guerra de 1812, la nación estaba tan polarizada como lo estaría casi 50 años después, al comienzo de la Guerra Civil. Los demócratas-republicanos, como el presidente Madison, apoyaron la guerra, mientras que los federalistas se opusieron. & # 8220Tiene que haber una fuerza cohesiva en Washington, & # 8221, dice Hart. Por viva que fuera, Dolley cumplió ese papel.

Durante el mandato de su esposo como presidente, Dolley organizaba fiestas todos los miércoles por la noche, a las que asistían personas de diferentes puntos de vista. Con bastante determinación, reunió a las facciones con la esperanza de que se pudieran llegar a acuerdos. Las reuniones, a menudo celebradas en el Salón Oval, donde colgaban las cortinas de terciopelo, se llamaban & # 8220 apretones & # 8221, explica Hart, porque & # 8220todo el mundo quería apretujarse & # 8221.

Al final de su vida, como viuda, Dolley era bastante pobre. Cuando murió, la mayoría de sus posesiones restantes se vendieron en una subasta pública. En una subasta en 1852, la sobrina de Dolley & # 8217, Anna Payne, compró el vestido de terciopelo rojo, un retrato de Dolley, algunos de sus turbantes de seda característicos y otros artículos, que luego heredaron la hija y el nieto de Payne & # 8217. En 1956, se descubrió un baúl que contenía las pertenencias en el ático de una casa rural de Pensilvania, donde había vivido el nieto y la viuda. La Dolley Madison Memorial Association invirtió en la colección y luego la donó al Museo Histórico de Greensboro en 1963 (Dolley nació en Greensboro).

Una vez en manos del museo, los investigadores empezaron a hablar sobre cómo el vestido rojo de Dolley parecía estar hecho de terciopelo del peso de una cortina. El vestido apareció en una exposición de 1977, titulada & # 8220Dolley and the & # 8216Great Little Madison, & # 8217 & # 8221 en la Octagon House en Washington, donde los Madison vivieron después del incendio de la Casa Blanca. En un libro adjunto, el curador de la muestra, Conover Hunt-Jones, señaló que el vestido fue hecho & # 8220 no con los terciopelos ligeros que se usan normalmente para la ropa & # 8221. La observación fue suficiente para alimentar la imaginación de los historiadores, y muchos desde entonces han entretuvo la idea de que Dolley pudiera haber reutilizado las cortinas.

& # 8220Parece tener carácter & # 8221, dice Susan Webster, curadora de vestuario y textiles en el Museo Histórico de Greensboro. & # 8220¿Por qué dejar que esto se desperdicie y no & # 8217t será una gran pieza de la que hablar cuando estemos cenando con la gente? Tal vez sea su practicidad como cuáquera. Creo que ella atesoraba las cosas. Ella entendió su valor. & # 8221

Los documentos encontrados con el vestido rojo lo vinculan, indiscutiblemente, a Dolley. Probablemente se hizo en algún momento entre 1810 y 1820. Sin embargo, no se ha encontrado ningún registro, ya sea una carta de Dolley & # 8217s o un pedido de un vestido, que vincule el vestido con las cortinas de Latrobe & # 8217s. & # 8220Es un folclore del siglo XX, & # 8221 dice Webster.

En medio de la publicidad de la exposición de la Galería Nacional de Retratos y # 8217, Diane Dunkley, directora y curadora en jefe del Museo Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), también en Washington, DC, leyó sobre el vestido & # 8212 probablemente en exhibición para el la última vez dada su frágil condición. Sus oídos se animaron. El Museo DAR tiene en su colección una muestra de tela supuestamente de las cortinas de terciopelo rojo.

Planes formulados rápidamente. El Museo DAR y el Museo Histórico de Greensboro enviaron recortes de las supuestas cortinas y el vestido al Museo Nacional de Historia Estadounidense, para que el conservador de vestuario Sunae Park Evans los comparara usando un nuevo microscopio digital.

& # 8220Usted no puede & # 8217t probar absolutamente que la historia es cierta solo con una comparación & # 8221, explica Alden O & # 8217Brien, curador de vestuario y textiles en el Museo DAR. Después de todo, solo a través de la historia oral, el Museo DAR sabe que su muestra proviene de las cortinas. & # 8220Pero si las telas coinciden, fortalece la probabilidad de que haya & # 8217s verdad en las historias compartidas & # 8221, dice.

En un laboratorio brillantemente iluminado en el sótano del Museo de Historia Estadounidense, acompañado de algunos corpiños de maniquí de espuma de poliestireno a medio construir, observo mientras Evans y O & # 8217Brien analizan una pequeña pieza del remanente de DAR & # 8217s. La vista ampliada del microscopio # 8217 se transpone a la pantalla de una computadora. Basado en el tejido de la tela # 8217s, rápidamente se dan cuenta de que es de satén, no de terciopelo. Algo decepcionante, O & # 8217Brien concluye que la muestra no podría ser posiblemente de las cortinas rojas en el Salón Oval Salón, como pensó el DAR, ya que todas las referencias a las cortinas especifican que son de terciopelo.

Evans luego coloca un pequeño fragmento del vestido, tomado de una costura interior, debajo de la lente. & # 8220Oh, estructura de tejido muy diferente, & # 8221 O & # 8217Brien exclama. & # 8220Totalmente diferente. & # 8221 De hecho, el color también lo es. Esta pieza es más rosada que la muestra anterior. Según la forma en que se tejen las fibras, Evans dice con certeza que este & # 160es& # 160 terciopelo. Si es & # 160los& # 160terciopelo de las cortinas, sin embargo, nadie puede decirlo.

A Hart, de la National Portrait Gallery, le gusta creer en el cuento. & # 8220Me parece razonable & # 8221, dice el historiador. Dolley se quedó con el vestido hasta el día de su muerte. & # 8220Pero no hay forma de que pueda ver que esto realmente pueda ser probado de una forma u otra & # 8221, dice.


Datos sobre Dolley Madison 9: casada con James Madison

El 15 de septiembre de 1794, Dolley se casó con James Madison después de que fuera expulsado de la Sociedad de Amigos porque Madison no era cuáquera.

Datos sobre Dolley Madison 10: como la primera dama

Dolley asumió el papel de primera dama después de que su esposo fuera elegido presidente. Ella se destacó por su hospitalidad y gracia social.

Te gusta leer hechos sobre Dolley Madison?


ACERCA DE DOLLEY PAYNE MADISON:

Aquí están los bits de información que indican que Dolley Madison, esposa del presidente James Madison, puede ser un pariente consanguíneo:

Del Departamento PoliSci, Universidad W. Virginia, Condado de Marion Historia: & quot La historia oral indica que en 1808 BOAZ FLEMING hizo su viaje anual a Clarksburg para pagar los impuestos del condado de Harrison de su hermano. Mientras estaba en Clarksburg, asistió a una reunión social que incluía a DOLLY MADISON, su primo.

John Fleming fue su tatarabuelo. Nació en Escocia alrededor de 1627 y murió en Virginia alrededor de 1686.

De Ancestry.com y otras fuentes: Mary Cole, la madre de Dolley, murió en Clarksburg, VA en 1808. Este fue el mismo año en que Boaz Fleming visitó Clarksburg y se encontró con su prima, Dolley.

De Wikipedia.org/DolleyMadison: Dolley Payne Todd se casó con James Madison el 15 de septiembre de 1794 en Harewood, Virginia (ahora W.Virginia), una plantación propiedad de su hermana, Mary, y su cuñado, George Steptoe Washington, sobrino del primer presidente de EE. UU., GEORGE WASHINGTON.

El primer marido de Dolley fue John Todd, Jr. Tuvieron dos hijos. John murió en 1793 junto con su hijo mayor y sus padres de fiebre amarilla.


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Acerca de Dolly Madison, Primera Dama de EE. UU.

Primera Dama de los Estados Unidos de 1809 a 1817. También actuó ocasionalmente como lo que ahora se describe como Primera Dama de los Estados Unidos durante la administración de Thomas Jefferson, cumpliendo las funciones ceremoniales más generalmente asociadas con la esposa del presidente, ya que Jefferson era un viudo. [1] It is disputed as to whether her true name is Dorothea, Dorothy, or Dolley and her name has been widely misspelled as "Dolly" her most recent biographers use the name Dolley as that is how she identified herself during her lifetime and because that is how her name was registered at her birth.

On January 7, 1790, in Philadelphia, she married John Todd, Jr. (1764-1793), a lawyer who was instrumental in keeping her father out of bankruptcy and who found Mary Payne a position as the manager of a boarding house. The couple had two sons, John Payne (February 29, 1792-1852) and William Temple (born/died in 1793). In 1793, a yellow fever epidemic broke out in Philadelphia. Her husband moved Dolley and their older son, out of the city to safety, while he returned to attend to the sick including his parents. John Todd and his parents soon died, however. [6] Their youngest son, William Temple Todd, also died in 1793 from yellow fever.[7] Dolley and her other son, John Payne, were both also afflicted with yellow fever, but recovered.

Marriage to James Madison:

In 1794, after returning to Philadelphia, her friend Aaron Burr, who was a frequent guest at the boarding house managed by Mary Payne, introduced her to James Madison. On September 14, 1794, Dolley Todd married James Madison, who was seventeen years older. The location of the wedding was Harewood, Virginia (now in West Virginia), a plantation owned by the bride's brother-in-law George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of the first president of the United States. The Madisons had no children but raised Dolley's son from her first marriage, John Payne Todd, whom they called Payne.

The First Spouse Program under the Presidential $1 Coin Act authorizes the United States Mint to issue 1/2 ounce $10 gold coins and bronze medal duplicates[8] to honor the spouses of Presidents of the United States. Dolley Madison's coin (below, right) was released on November 18, 2007. Earlier, the Mint had issued a commemorative coin (below, left) in 1999 bearing her likeness. ________________________________________________________________________________________ During the War of 1812, the Tayloe family offered their home, known as The Octagon, as a temporary "Executive Mansion" after the British burned the White House. There are reports of Dolley Madison's ghost seen roaming the house after her death, still wearing her elegant clothes and the feathered turban.

Dolley Madison was the wife of James Madison, the architect of the U.S. Constitution and fourth president of the United States (1809­�). She was the third woman to serve as what is now called "first lady," and her imprint as the national hostess defined the role until the more activist Eleanor Roosevelt broke Madison's ceremonial model. It was during her years in the White House that Madison gained her fame as a shrewd and graceful politician who could win the hearts of those who opposed her husband, and the greatest Washington hostess of the first quarter of the nineteenth century. She is also known for saving a portrait of George Washington during the War of 1812. After the end of James Madison's second term in the White House, the couple returned to live at their plantation, Montpelier, in Orange County, where they remained until James Madison died in 1836. From 1836 to 1844, Dolley Madison resided both in Washington, D.C., and at Montpelier, after which she spent the last five and a half years of her life in Washington. She was criticized by abolitionists for continuing to own slaves but remained a prominent national figure even while facing serious financial struggles. Along with Elizabeth Hamilton, the wife of Alexander Hamilton, she was the last surviving member of the founding generation, admired and esteemed for both her own contributions and those of her husband. She died in 1849 in Washington, where she was buried. Her remains were later moved to the Madison family cemetery at Montpelier.

BURIAL DATE IS NOT WRONG -- READ BIO BELOW. Dolley was buried three different times.

Presidential First Lady. She was the wife of 4th United States President James Madison. Born in New Garden, North Carolina, she married John Todd, Jr., a lawyer, in 1790. He succumbed to yellow fever in 1793, leaving her with a small son, Payne. Her second marriage was to James Madison, who was then serving as a Congressman from Virginia, and was seventeen years her senior. He was very patient with his stepson Payne who first mismanaged his own affairs and eventually his mothers which left her destitute. She was a great asset to Madison's career. When her husband was appointed Secretary of State by the widowed President Thomas Jefferson in 1801, Dolley assisted him as White House hostess and presided at the first inaugural ball when her husband became Chief Executive in 1809. During the burning of the White House in 1814, she saved many state papers and a portrait of George Washington from the advancing British. Upon her husbands death in 1836 in Virginia, she returned to Washington, D.C. residing on Lafayette Square where she retained a place in Washington society and was granted a lifelong seat on the floor of the House of Representatives. Upon her death she was interred in a brick receiving vault at the Congressional Cemetery, Washington D.C. It was removed in 1852 and placed in the private vault of her niece. The remains were on the move again in 1858 when it was exhumed and transported to the Madison family graveyard at Montpelier and interred behind her husband's monument. (bio by: Paul S.)

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Wife of James Madison, the fourth President of the United States.

Dolley Payne Todd Madison (May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849) was the spouse of the fourth President of the United States, James Madison, and was First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She also occasionally acted as First Lady during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, fulfilling the ceremonial functions more usually associated with the President's wife, since Jefferson was a widower.[1]

In the past, biographers and others stated that her real name was Dorothea after her Aunt, or Dorothy and Dolley was a nickname. However, the registry of her birth with the New Garden Friends Meeting lists her name as Dolley and her will of 1841 states "I, Dolley p. Madison"[2]. Based on manuscript evidence and the scholarship of her recent biographers, Dolley, spelled with an E, appears to have been her given name.[3]

Early life and first marriage

Dolley Payne was born on May 20, 1768, in the Quaker settlement of New Garden, North Carolina, in Guilford County. [4] Her parents, both Virginians, had moved there in 1765. Her mother, Mary Cole, a Quaker, married John Payne, a non-Quaker, in 1761. Three years later, he applied and was admitted to the Quaker Monthly Meeting in Hanover County, Virginia, and Dolley Payne was raised in the Quaker faith.

Dolley was one of 8 children, four boys (Walter, William Temple, Isaac, and John) and four girls (Dolley, Lucy, Anna, and Mary). In 1769, the family returned to Virginia.[5] As a young girl, she grew up in comfort in rural eastern Virginia, deeply attached to her mother's family.

In 1783, John Payne emancipated his slaves and moved his family to Philadelphia, where he went into business as a starch merchant. By 1789, however, his business had failed. He died in 1792. Dolley's mother initially made ends meet by opening a boarding house. A year later she moved to western Virginia to live with her daughter Lucy, who had married George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of George Washington. Mary Coles Payne took her two youngest children, Mary and John, with her. By then, Dolley Payne had married Quaker lawyer John Todd in January 1790. Their son, John Payne Todd, was born in 1792 and William Temple Todd in 1793. Her sister Anna lived with the Todds as well.

In the fall of 1793, yellow fever struck Philadelphia. Her husband and younger son, William Temple, both died in the epidemic, and Dolley Todd was left a widow at the age of twenty-five.

In May, 1794, James Madison asked his friend Aaron Burr to introduce him to Dolley Todd. Madison was seventeen years her senior and, at the age of forty-three, a long-standing bachelor.

The encounter apparently went smoothly for a brisk courtship followed, and by August she had accepted his proposal of marriage. For marrying Madison, a non-Quaker, she was expelled from the Society of Friends. They were married on September 15, 1794 and lived in Philadelphia for the next three years.

In 1797, after eight years in the House of Representatives, James Madison retired from politics. He took his family to Montpelier, the Madison family estate in Orange County, Virginia. There they expanded the house and settled in. They expected to remain as planters living quietly in the country but when Thomas Jefferson became the third president of the United States, in 1801, he asked James Madison to serve as his Secretary of State. James Madison accepted, and the Madison family, consisting now of James, Dolley, her son Payne, and her sister Anna, moved to Washington, D.C.. They moved to an extremely large house for the amount of their savings.

Madison worked with the architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe to furnish the White House.

In the approach to the 1808 presidential election, with Thomas Jefferson ready to retire, the Democratic-Republican caucus nominated James Madison to succeed him. James Madison was elected President, serving two terms from 1809 to 1817, with Dolley becoming official First Lady.

As the invading British army approached Washington during the War of 1812, Madison's slaves collected valuables like silver, Gilbert Stuart's famous portrait of George Washington, an original draft of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

However, in her own letter to her sister the day before Washington was burned (after hearing about the Battle of Bladensburg) [6],Dolly says she ordered that the painting be removed: "Our kind friend Mr. Carroll has come to hasten my departure, and in a very bad humor with me, because I insist on waiting until the large picture of General Washington is secured, and it requires to be unscrewed from the wall. The process was found too tedious for these perilous moments I have ordered the frame to be broken and the canvas taken out". "It is done, and the precious portrait placed in the hands of two gentlemen from New York for safe keeping. On handing the canvas to the gentlemen in question, Messrs. Barker and Depeyster, Mr. Sioussat cautioned them against rolling it up, saying that it would destroy the portrait. He was moved to this because Mr. Barker started to roll it up for greater convenience for carrying." [7]

The late White House historians JH McCormick (1904) and Gilson Willets (1908)identify the man in charge of removing the painting, as Jean Pierre Sioussat [8], the first Master of Ceremonies of the White House [9], quoted as follows: " a negro servant, named Paul Jennings, issued in 1865, A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison, in which he, as a White House employe, insists 'She (Mrs. Madison) had no time for doing it It would have required a ladder to get it down. All she carried off was the silver in her reticule, as the British were thought to be but a few squares off, and were expected every moment. John Suse (meaning Jean Sioussat), a Frenchman, then doorkeeper, and still living, and McGraw, the President's gardener, took it down and sent it off on a wagon with some larger silver urns and other such valuables as could be hastily got together. When the British did arrive they ate up the very dinner that I had prepared for the President's party.'"

The late White House historians give the accounts of further authorities regarding the First Lady's escape from fire of 1814:

"The friends with Mrs. Madison hurried her away (her carriage being previously ready), and she, with many other families, retreated with the flying army. In Georgetown they perceived some men before them carrying off the picture of General Washington (the large one by Stewart), which with the plate was all that was saved out of the President's house. Mrs. Madison lost all her own property. Mrs. Madison slept that night in the encampment, a guard being placed round her tent the next day she crossed into Virginia, where she remained until Sunday, when she returned to meet her husband."

An eye-witness, writing for the Federal Republican, published at the time of the fire, says: "About ten o'clock on the night of the 24th ult., while the Capitol, the Navy Yard, the Magazine, and the buildings attached thereto, on Greenleaf's Point, were entirely in flames, I was sitting in the window of my lodging on the Pennsylvania Avenue, contemplating the solemn and awful scene, when about a hundred men passed the house, troops of the enemy, on their way toward the President's house. They walked two abreast preceded by an officer on foot, each armed with a hanger, and wearing a chapeau de bras. In the middle of the ranks were two men, each with a dark lanthorn. They marched quickly but silently. Some of them, however, were talking in the ranks, which being overheard by the officer, he called out to them 'Silence! If any man speaks in the ranks, I'll put him to death' 1 Shortly after they pushed on, I observed four officers on horseback, with chapeau de bras and side arms. They made up to the house, and pulling off their hats in a polite and social manner, wished us a good evening. The family and myself returned the salute, and I observed to them, 'Gentlemen! I presume you are officers of the British Army'. They replied they were. 'I hope, sir', said I, addressing one that rode up under the window, which I found to be Admiral Cockburn, 'that individuals and private property will be respected'. Admiral Cockburn and General Ross immediately replied: 'Yes, sir, we pledge our sacred honor that the citizens and private property shall be respected. Be under no apprehension. Our advice to you is to remain at home. Do not quit your houses'. Admiral Cockburn then inquired: 'Where is your President, Mr. Madison ?' I replied, "I could not tell, but supposed by this time at a considerable distance."

"They then observed that they were on their way to pay a visit to the President's house, which they were told was but a little distance ahead. They again requested that we would stay in our houses, where we would be perfectly safe, and bowing, politely, wished us good night, and proceeded on. I perceived the smoke coming from the windows of the President's house, and in a short time, that splendid and elegant edifice, reared at the expense of so much cost and labor, inferior to none that I have observed in the different parts of Europe, was wrapt in one entire flame. The large and elegant Capitol of the Nation on one side, and the splendid National Palace and Treasury Department on the other, all wrapt in flame, presented a grand and sublime, but, at the same time, an awful and melancholy sight."

On April 6 1817, Dolley and James Madison returned to their estate in Orange County, Virginia.

In 1830, Dolley Madison's son by her first marriage, Payne Todd, who had never found a career, went to debtors prison in Philadelphia. The Madisons sold land in Kentucky and mortgaged half of the Montpelier estate to pay Todd's debts.

James Madison died at Montpelier on June 28, 1836. Dolley remained at Montpelier for a year. One of her nieces, Anna Payne, came to live with her. Payne Todd also came for a stay, and Mrs. Madison organized and copied her husband's papers. In 1837, Congress authorized $30,000 as payment for the first installment of the Madison papers.

In the fall of 1837, Dolley Payne Madison decided to leave Montpelier for Washington, D.C., charging Payne Todd with the care of the plantation. She moved with Anna Payne into a house her sister Anna and her husband Richard Cutts had bought, located on Lafayette Square.

While Madison was living in Washington, Payne Todd was unable to manage the plantation successfully due to alcoholism and resulting illness. Madison tried to raise money by selling the rest of James' papers. Unable to find a buyer for the papers, she sold the whole estate to pay off outstanding debts. Paul Jennings later recalled, "In the last days of her life, before Congress purchased her husband's papers, she was in a state of absolute poverty, and I think sometimes suffered for the necessaries of life. While I was a servant to Mr. Webster, he often sent me to her with a market-basket full of provisions, and told me whenever I saw anything in the house that I thought she was in need of, to take it to her. I often did this, and occasionally gave her small sums from my own pocket, though I had years before bought my freedom of her."[10] In 1848, Congress agreed to buy the rest of James Madison's papers for the sum of $25,000.

Dolley Madison died at her home in Washington, DC at the age of 81. She was first interred in the Congressional Cemetery, Washington, DC., but later re-interred at Montpelier estate, Orange, Virginia. [11]

Dolley was born to John and Mary Coles Payne in North Carolina in 1768. In 1783, John Payne moved his family to Philadelphia, city of the Quakers. Although raised in the strict discipline of the Society of Friends, she had a happy personality and a warm heart.

John Todd, Jr., a lawyer, exchanged marriage vows with Dolley in 1790. Just three years later he died in a yellow-fever epidemic, leaving his wife with a small son.

By this time Philadelphia had become the capital city. With her charm and her laughing blue eyes, fair skin, and black curls, the young widow attracted distinguished attention. Although Representative James Madison of Virginia was 17 years her senior, and Episcopalian in background, they were married in September 1794. The marriage, though childless, was notably happy: "our hearts understand each other", she assured him. He could even be patient with Dolley's son, Payne, who mishandled his own affairs - and, eventually mismanaged Madison's estate.

Discarding the somber Quaker dress after her second marriage, Dolley chose the finest of fashions. Blessed with a desire to please, and a willingness to be pleased, Dolley made her home the center of society when Madison began, in 1801, his eight years as Jefferson's Secretary of State. She assisted at the White House when the President asked her help in receiving ladies, and presided at the first inaugural ball in Washington when her husband became Chief Executive in 1809.

Dolly's social graces made her famous. Her political acumen, prized by her husband, is less renowned, though her gracious tact smoothed many a quarrel. Hostile statesmen, difficult envoys from Spain or Tunisia, warrior chiefs from the west, flustered youngsters - she always welcomed everyone.

During the War of 1812, she was forced to flee Washington, as the British Army was advancing. But not before insisting on saving Stuart's oil portrait of George Washington. On August 24, 1814, the burning walls of the White House were saved only by a thunderstorm that broke that night. She returned to find the mansion in ruins. But undaunted by temporary quarters, she continued to entertain as skillfully as ever.

At their plantation Montpelier in Virginia, the Madisons lived in pleasant retirement until he died in 1836. She returned to the capital in the autumn of 1837, where she remained until her death in 1849, honored and loved by all.

Presidential First Lady. She was the wife of 4th United States President James Madison. Born in New Garden, North Carolina, she married John Todd, Jr., a lawyer, in 1790. He succumbed to yellow fever in 1793, leaving her with a small son, Payne. Her second marriage was to James Madison, who was then serving as a Congressman from Virginia, and was seventeen years her senior. He was very patient with his stepson Payne who first mismanaged his own affairs and eventually his mothers which left her destitute. She was a great asset to Madison's career. When her husband was appointed Secretary of State by the widowed President Thomas Jefferson in 1801, Dolley assisted him as White House hostess and presided at the first inaugural ball when her husband became Chief Executive in 1809. During the burning of the White House in 1814, she saved many state papers and a portrait of George Washington from the advancing British. Upon her husbands death in 1836 in Virginia, she returned to Washington, D.C. residing on Lafayette Square where she retained a place in Washington society and was granted a lifelong seat on the floor of the House of Representatives.

First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She also occasionally acted as what is now described as First Lady of the United States during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, fulfilling the ceremonial functions more usually associated with the President's wife, since Jefferson was a widower.[1] It is disputed as to whether her true name is Dorothea, Dorothy, or Dolley and her name has been widely misspelled as "Dolly" her most recent biographers use the name Dolley as that is how she identified herself during her lifetime and because that is how her name was registered at her birth.

On January 7, 1790, in Philadelphia, she married John Todd, Jr. (1764-1793), a lawyer who was instrumental in keeping her father out of bankruptcy and who found Mary Payne a position as the manager of a boarding house. The couple had two sons, John Payne (February 29, 1792-1852) and William Temple (born/died in 1793). In 1793, a yellow fever epidemic broke out in Philadelphia. Her husband moved Dolley and their older son, out of the city to safety, while he returned to attend to the sick including his parents. John Todd and his parents soon died, however. [6] Their youngest son, William Temple Todd, also died in 1793 from yellow fever.[7] Dolley and her other son, John Payne, were both also afflicted with yellow fever, but recovered.

Marriage to James Madison:

In 1794, after returning to Philadelphia, her friend Aaron Burr, who was a frequent guest at the boarding house managed by Mary Payne, introduced her to James Madison. On September 14, 1794, Dolley Todd married James Madison, who was seventeen years older. The location of the wedding was Harewood, Virginia (now in West Virginia), a plantation owned by the bride's brother-in-law George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of the first president of the United States. The Madisons had no children but raised Dolley's son from her first marriage, John Payne Todd, whom they called Payne.

The First Spouse Program under the Presidential $1 Coin Act authorizes the United States Mint to issue 1/2 ounce $10 gold coins and bronze medal duplicates[8] to honor the spouses of Presidents of the United States. Dolley Madison's coin (below, right) was released on November 18, 2007. Earlier, the Mint had issued a commemorative coin (below, left) in 1999 bearing her likeness. ________________________________________________________________________________________ During the War of 1812, the Tayloe family offered their home, known as The Octagon, as a temporary "Executive Mansion" after the British burned the White House. There are reports of Dolley Madison's ghost seen roaming the house after her death, still wearing her elegant clothes and the feathered turban.

BURIAL DATE IS NOT WRONG -- READ BIO BELOW. Dolley was buried three different times.


Dolley Madison

Dolley Payne was born on May 20, 1768, in the Quaker settlement of New Garden in Guilford County, North Carolina. Her parents, John and Mary Coles Payne, had moved there from Virginia in 1765. Her mother, a Quaker, had married John Payne, a non-Quaker, in 1761. Three years later, John was admitted to the Quaker Monthly Meeting in Hanover County, Virginia, and Dolley Payne was raised in the Quaker faith.

Dolley was one of 8 children, four boys and four girls. In 1769 the family returned to Virginia. As a young girl, Dolley grew up in comfort in rural eastern Virginia. In 1783, John Payne emancipated his slaves and moved the family to Philadelphia, where he went into business as a starch merchant.

No records exist of any formal education for Dolley. Although Philadelphia’s Pine Street Meeting, to which the Paynes belonged, did offer class instructions for girls as well as boys, Dolley was 15 years old at the time she moved to Philadelphia and was past the usual age for school.

By 1789, however, Payne’s business had failed he died in 1792. Dolley’s mother, Mary Coles Payne, initially made ends meet by opening a boarding house, and one of her guests was Congressman Aaron Burr. A year later Mary moved to western Virginia to live with her daughter Lucy, who had married George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of George Washington.

In January 1790, Dolley Payne married John Todd a lawyer and fellow Quaker. They lived in a modest three-story brick house at the corner of Fourth and Walnut Streets. Their son John Payne Todd was born in 1792 and William Temple Todd in 1793. Dolley’s eleven-year-old sister Anna, whom Dolley referred to as her “daughter-sister,” lived with the Todds as well.

During a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia in the fall of 1793, Dolley’s husband and younger son both died on the same day, leaving her a widow at the age of twenty-five.

In May 1794, James Madison, a Congressman from Virginia, asked his friend Aaron Burr to introduce him to Dolley Todd. Madison was seventeen years her senior and, at the age of forty-three, a long-standing bachelor. A courtship followed, and by August she had accepted his proposal of marriage.

On September 15, 1794, Dolley married James Madison at her sister Lucy’s home in present-day West Virginia. Following their wedding, James and Dolley honeymooned at the home of Madison’s sister, Nelly Hite, at Belle Grove near Winchester, Virginia, before returning to Philadelphia where Madison resumed his leadership duties in Congress. They lived in Madison’s elegant three-story Spruce Street brick house until his retirement from Congress in 1797.

For marrying a non-Quaker, she was expelled from the Society of Friends. This never seemed to bother the lively Dolley who later noted that the “Society used to control me entirely and debar me from so many advantages and pleasures.”

James Madison: Founding Father
James Madison was among the first to recognize that a stronger central government would be critical to the new nation’s survival. He undertook an exhaustive study of government structures throughout history, outlining reasons why earlier attempts at democracy and representative government failed. His research convinced him that the Articles would not withstand the onslaughts of state interests.

Madison’s ideas eventually crystallized into the Virginia Plan, where the interests of individuals, states, and the national authority were balanced and mixed into “an extended republic.” He also sought the counsel of influential Americans whose support was vital if any changes in the government were to take place. George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Edmund Randolph were among the prominent politicians to support Madison’s plan.

When the Constitutional Convention finally began in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, many feared that the young country was near collapse. During the long, hot summer that followed, the 55 delegates hammered out a new framework of government. Madison lobbied strongly for his positions, proposed compromises and took copious notes.

In the end, many of Madison’s proposals were incorporated into the Constitution, including representation in Congress according to population, support for a strong national executive, the need for checks and balances among the three branches of government and the idea of a federal system that assigned certain powers to the national government and reserved others for the states.

However, the Constitution still faced challenges with the state ratification conventions. Along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, Madison wrote a series of essays, Los papeles federalistas, that argued for ratification. Virginia’s support would be absolutely critical, so he lobbied his fellow citizens hard for its passage. His efforts were rewarded in June 1788, when New Hampshire and Virginia ratified the Constitution.

In 1797, after eight years in the House of Representatives, James Madison retired from politics. He took his family to Montpelier, the Madison family estate in Orange County, Virginia. There they expanded the house and settled in, expecting to remain planters and live quietly in the country. Dolley assumed not only household management of the plantation and slaves, but also cared for her elderly mother-in-law who lived there.

However, when Thomas Jefferson became the third president of the United States in 1801, he asked James Madison to serve as his Secretary of State. He accepted, and the Madison family, moved to Washington, DC, the new capital, in June 1801.

Initially, the family – consisting now of James, Dolley, son Payne and sister Anna – lived in The White House (known simply as the “president’s house” at this time) with Jefferson, but by 1802 they had their own house on F Street two blocks away. Anna would continue as part of the family until she married Congressman Richard Cutts in 1804.

At receptions and dinners President Thomas Jefferson – who had been a widow since 1782 – felt required hostess, he asked Dolley Madison to help him. Though not given an official designation, her exposure to the political and diplomatic figures who were guests of the President, as well as to the general public who came to meet him, provided her with a lengthy experience as a White House hostess.

Dolley Madison’s popularity as a hostess for Jefferson in Washington added greatly to the recognition of her husband by those members of congress whose electoral votes chose the winner of presidential races. During the 1808 election, however, there was an attempt by Federalist newspapers in Baltimore and Boston that implied Mrs. Madison had been intimate with President Jefferson as a way of attacking her character.

In the approaching 1808 presidential election, with Jefferson ready to retire, the Democratic-Republican Party nominated James Madison to succeed him. Madison was elected the fourth President of the United States, serving two terms from 1809 to 1817 Dolley became First Lady of the United States.

Imagen: President James Madison
4th President of the United States
John Vanderlyn, 1816

In the White House 1809-1817
In preparation for the inaugural ceremonies on March 4, 1809, the commandant of the Washington Navy Yard requested Dolley’s permission and sponsorship of a dance and dinner, and she readily agreed thus, the first Inaugural Ball took place that evening. Held at Long’s Hotel on Capitol Hill, four hundred guests attended. Dressed in a buff-colored velvet gown, wearing pearls and large plumes in a turban, Dolley made a dramatic impression.

With more conscious effort than either of her two predecessors, and with an enthusiasm for public life that neither of them had, Dolley Madison forged the highly public role as a President’s wife, believing that the citizenry was her constituency as well as that of her husband’s. This would establish her as the standard against which all her successors would be held, well into the mid-20th century.

This persona was specifically created to serve the political fortunes of not only the President, but also of the United States. She would steer conversation with political figures in a way that revealed their positions on issues facing the Madison Administration, or sought to convince them to consider the viewpoint of her husband. She held dove parties where congressional wives discussed current events, hosted political dinners, and gave wildly popular public receptions.

She was also the first to decorate the White House. Working within a tight budget, Dolley balanced the elegance required to impress international visitors and the modesty of a republican nation. Through her purchases of wallpaper, furniture, and china, Dolley Madison combined sophistication with simplicity. She completed her decoration of the White House by 1810, throwing a gala to display her achievements to the American public.

In 1814, while the War of 1812 was raging, the British Army advanced on Washington, and the President left the city to be on the front lines with the troops. He ordered his wife to leave, but she refused to leave until she heard cannon fire.

On August 24, 1814, British soldiers set fire to the White House, and fuel was added to the fires to ensure they would continue burning into the next day the smoke was reportedly visible as far away as Baltimore. Dolley commandeered a large wagon off the street and helped the servants load it with vital state documents, the President’s papers and books, her favorite silver and china, and at the last minute, Gilbert Stuart’s portrait of George Washington.

The fire in the White House destroyed the interior and charred much of the exterior. Reconstruction began almost immediately. Colonel John Tayloe III offered the use of his home, The Octagon House, to the Madisons as a temporary Executive Mansion, and they resided there for the remainder of his term. Madison used the circular room above the entrance as a study, and in that room in 1815, he signed the ratification papers for the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812.

At Montpelier 1817-1837
On April 6, 1817, Dolley and James Madison returned to their estate in Orange County, Virginia. In 1830, Dolley’s son by her first marriage, Payne Todd, a gambler and an alcoholic who never married nor had a career, went to debtors prison in Philadelphia. The Madisons sold land in Kentucky and mortgaged half of the Montpelier estate to pay Todd’s debts.

Madison used his retirement to organize his papers for publication, especially his notes from the Constitutional Convention. In this effort, Dolley was his helpmate, even serving as his hands when painful rheumatism kept him from writing. Madison always said he would not share these notes until the last of the delegates to the convention had died. As it turned out he himself was the last to pass away.

James Madison died at Montpelier on June 28, 1836, at the age of 85.

Thus the 41-year marriage between James and Dolley drew to a close. Theirs had been a supremely successful relationship on both a personal and a public level. Dolley remained at Montpelier for a year thereafter. One of her nieces, Anna Payne, daughter of her younger brother John Coles Payne came to live with Dolley, but she found life at Montpelier difficult.

In the fall of 1837, Dolley decided to leave Montpelier and again moved to Washington, DC, with her niece, leaving Payne Todd was to run the plantation. Dolley and Anna moved into a house Dolley’s sister Anna and her husband had bought. Dolley was socially in demand, and politically she was a living symbol of the generation of the Founding Fathers.

Dolley Madison had helped her husband organize and prepare his papers, including those he used in drafting the U.S. Constitution for public release. After his death, she continued to organize and copy her husband’s papers. It was left to Dolley to publish Madison’s papers, and they did not bring the money he had hoped would carry her through to the end of her life.

While Dolley was living in Washington, Payne Todd was unable to manage the plantation successfully due to alcoholism and resulting illnesses, leaving them without income. Dolley moved back to Montpelier to run the plantation, but failed to make a profit. Due to the increasing burden of vast debt accumulated by her irresponsible son, she was forced to sell their Virginia properties, including Montpelier.

In Washington 1844-1849
In 1844, Dolley Madison returned permanently to Washington, DC, and moved into another Madison property, a row house across the street from the White House. The former First Lady lived in near-poverty for several years, and was so poor that she had to accept hand-outs from friends. In 1847, she sold her slave Paul Jennings to her Lafayette Square neighbor, Daniel Webster.

In the last days of her life, before Congress purchased her husband’s papers, she was in a state of absolute poverty, and I think sometimes suffered for the necessaries of life. While I was a servant to Mr. Webster, he often sent me to her with a market-basket full of provisions, and told me whenever I saw anything in the house that I thought she was in need of, to take it to her. I often did this, and occasionally gave her small sums from my own pocket.

In 1844, the United States House of Representatives dedicated an honorary seat in Congress for Dolley, allowing her to watch congressional debates from the floor, where members sat at their desks. From the White House she was the first private citizen to transmit a message via telegraph, an honor given her by its inventor Samuel F. B. Morse.

In 1848, Congress finally purchased James Madison’s papers for the sum of $25,000. Of this sum, Dolley invested $20,000 in a trust fund out of fear that Payne Todd would waste it on gambling and alcohol. During this time, Dolley served as Honorary Chair of a women’s group to raise funds for the Washington Memorial. Her last public appearance was on the arm of President James K. Polk at his last White House reception.

Dolley Payne Todd Madison died at her home in Washington, DC, July 12, 1849, at the age of 81. Her funeral was a state occasion, attended by the president, the cabinet officers, the diplomatic corps, members of the House and Senate, the justices of the Supreme Court, officers of the army and navy, the mayor and city leaders, and “citizens and strangers.”

Sometimes referred to today as the first First Lady, the title actually came from her eulogy which was delivered by then-President Zachary Taylor, who referred to her as “the first lady of the land for half a century.” Her final legacy was to inspire the term by which the presidents’ wives have been known ever since.

Her remains originally went to the Congressional Cemetery, but were later transported to Montpelier and now rest next to her husband’s in the Madison Family Cemetery.



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